Thursday, April 4, 2019
Guidebook on Seizures: Causes and What To Do
Guidebook on raptures Causes and What To Do egotism instructional module is mavin of the educational material that helps individualized learning. It is important to go through the module in schematic way. eat your own to immortalise this material slowly and c atomic number 18fully in the place/room provide for you in the hospital premises.In case if you have any doubt regarding the content make a nock and clarify with the investigator.Try to answer the question outpouringn at the end when you find any unfilled time.Compargon your answer with the key answer provided.SELF INSTRUCTIONAL MODULE ON PROMOTION OF synthetic rubber MEASURES ON MANAGEMENT OF SEIZUREINTRODUCTIONThis is a self explanatory booklet on publicity of rubber measures for diligents with ictus and primary c atomic number 18 givers of the affected roles. Some of the valuable in pee-peeation is given in this Self tuitional Module (SIM) for you which get out be very useful and in divisionative for you in your practical life.CHAPTER 1NEURONS AND FUNCTIONS OF BRAINNEURONSWe are amazingly efficient and blessed with the skittish system in our body. Nervous arranging consists of vast number of cells c anyed Neurons. Neurons transfer messages from one to a nonher to eat up knowledge in form of our senses and gibe our thoughts and activities.To shine a message, the neurons want a messenger. We called that messenger as Chemical Messenger. The chemical messenger travels to the futurity(a) neuron and transfer the information. If the amount of chemical messenger is enough, the neurons will receive the message in the form of Electrical charges. Changes that takes place in these electrical charges producing a electrical wave which is called Firing. Once a neuron fires it sends the information along to all the other neurons it is in contact with.During transmission of messages there are come out chemical transmitters which will freeze the neuron to prevent the brain from having more mor e exercise to handle. in that respect are also some rid messengers which will help to pass the messages to all other neurons. So the passing of message from one neuron to another is a combined action of freeze and unfreeze messengers of the nervous system.HOW SEIZURE HAPPENSIf there is not enough freeze messengers a ecstasy washbowl happen. A ictus happens when too many informations are press release around the brain at once, all at the alike(p) time.BRAIN wizard is one of the most important part of our body. Without brain there is no meaning for our life. The brain cells (neurons) helps us to carry out many actions and thoughts throughout our life. all alteration in the brain happens means, the all in all body function will be altered.Important parts of a mavenThe important parts of a brain area) Cerebrumb) Midbrainc) Ponsd) Medulla Oblongatae) CerebellumFunctions of brain intelligence helps in the mental activities which involve memory, intelligence, sense of responsib ility , thinking, reasoning , moral sense and learning.Sensory knowledge of pain, temperature , touch , sight , hearing , taste and smell.Helps in fine control of skeletal muscle movements and function.Helps in fine control of complex movements and learned co-ordinated activities.Helps to sense appetite, thirst, pleasure, fear, sleeping and waking cycles.Controls the rate and rhythm of heart.Controls the individualal line of credit pressure.Helps in initiating respiration and it also controls the rate and depth of respiration.Helps in maintaining posture and balance.Helps in language process. compactThis chapter deals with Neurons in nervous system, its functions, how exaltation happens, spirit and its function. The co-ordinated function and balance among the neurons and the brain helps us to rattling in this beautiful world.Exercise no. 1A vast number of cells present in nervous system is called ______The messenger that passes message from one neuron to another is____Neurons receiving the message in the form of____Too many messages going around the brain at the same time will leads to _______ helps in mental activities like memory, intelligence, thinking, reasoning and learning.CHAPTER- IISEIZUREIntroductionSeizure is a disorder that affects the nervous system of our body. When too many information are going to the brain at once all at the same time, seizure will occur.Can seizure be cured?Seizure back fountnot be cured in the real sense of the term. Seizure is a disease like diabetes mellitus, hypertension and asthma. only seizure push aside be alone controlled by following some of the safety measures.Facts and Myths about seizure.Facts.Seizure can occur at any time in life and for any race.The leading exercise of seizure in adults is head injury hitd by auto mobile accidents.The leading cause of seizure for those above 65 years is stroke. race with seizure are not violent or crazy.People with seizure are not mentally ill.Seizure is not a curse .Seizure is not be a barrier to success in life.MythsA person with seizure cant be go for Education.A person with Seizure cant conquer Job.A person with seizure cant get marry.Seizures are thought to be caused by possession by demons.Seizure is a curse.Meaning of seizureA seizure is a sudden disruption of nerve cells of brains normal electrical activity, that can cause a loss of conscious(p)ness and make the body to jerk. It cause a change in conduct characterized by changes in sensory perception (sense of feeling) or motor activity.Causes of seizureHigh feverBrain infections (Meningitis, tetanus, malaria)The triggering factors like Lack of sleep and stress.High direct of sugar and sodium in blood.Low level of sugar, calcium and magnesium.Kidney or Liver failure.Alcohol abuse.Insufficient oxygen supply to brainCigarette smoking. unconditioned brachydactylicitiesIncreased blood pressure.Reaction to some medication.How Seizure OccurWe have seen in chapter 1, that there are cluste rs of nerve cells in the brain called neurons. A persons thoughts, feelings and actions are produced by electro chemical impulses that the neurons generate. When too many information are going to the brain ,the information are getting mixed up. Thus during a seizure, the neurons send mixed up information to our body, so the body does things that you dont want it to. Anything the brain or body can do it can do due to seizure. Usually the neurons send signals around 80 times a second. During seizure, neurons may fire as many as 500 times a second.Types of seizureSeizures are mainly classified intoGeneralized seizurePartial seizureGeneralized seizure start in the whole brain at a time, it includesAbsence seizureTonic- clonic seizureAtonic seizurePartial seizures start in a small portion of the brain and stay there. They are of deuce typesComplex partial seizure in which conscious is changed or lost.Simple partial where the person is conscious for the whole thing.Aural stage of seizureP artial seizures can have the capacity to spread to whole brain, do generalized seizure. In this case, Partial seizure is then called an aure, because it is a warning that a big seizure is coming. It is characterized by odd smell, taste, simple convulsions and visual disturbances.Signs and Symptoms of SeizureThe symptoms of a seizure depend upon the heavens of the brain affected. If small areas are affected aural stage symptoms will be there and if grand portions of brain are affected, then the person will haveJerk and muscle spasm alter or loss of consciousnessLoss of bowel or bladder controlConfusion speech arrestMotionless stareExessive salivationAnxiety, weakness, irritability, dizziness, changes in appetite.Light-headednessTongue or cheek bitingCyanosisUnexpected falls with physical injuryComplicationsSevere injuryStatus epileptics It is a state of continuous seizure activity or a condition in which seizures reoccur in rapid succession without return to consciousness betwe en seizures.Diagnosis of seizureTaking an EncephalogramMagnetic Resonance ImagingComputed TomographyBlood abridgmentThese are the main methods to diagnose a seizure. These tests will reveal the abnormality which leads to seizure. These will give benefit cut images of your brain and its nerve cells.SummaryThis chapter deals with the Facts and Myths about seizure, Meaning of Seizure, Causes, How seizure occurs, types, Signs and symptoms, Complications and Diagnosis of a Seizure. Seizures are caused mainly due to abnormal electrical activity of the brain nerve cells.EXERCISE NO 2Try to answer the following questions._____ gives as information (warning) that a bigger seizure is coming.____is the result of abnormal electrical activity of brain nerve cells.____is a complication of seizure , which causes repeated reoccurrence of seizures without consciousness between seizures.____type of seizure affects a small portion of brain___is the leading cause of seizure in people above 65 years o ld.CHAPTER IIISAFETY MEASURES ON MANAGEMENT OF SEIZUREThis section is going to deal with the safety measures that the safety measures that the longanimous and the primary guardianship giver have to follow before, during and later a seizure attack.Section- 1Promotion of safety measures on management of seizure- To the Patients with Seizures.The main areas that section -1 deals with statement regarding drug handling of seizure reading regarding Employment and Driving counseling regarding marriage and pregnancyInstruction regarding recreational activitiesInstruction regarding relaxation techniquesInstruction regarding dietary pattern1) Instruction regarding drug treatment of seizureThings to be kept in mind while victorious anti-epileptic drugsThe aim of taking anticonvulsant drugs is to grasp adequate control of fitsYour brain need a constant maintenance of antiepileptic drugs to control seizures, so you have to take medications regularlyDont withdrawal the medication until pres cription of the doctorIf you have no fits for 4 to 5 years later withdrawal of drug, reoccurrence of seizure will become extremely small.Dont stop antiepileptic drugs when you are taking other medications for other diseases.If you vomit within an hour after taking anti-epileptic drug, take an extra sexually transmitted disease of same medication after some time.If you forget to take a dose of drug taken an extra tablet within same 24hours period.Dont drink alcohol when you are at a lower place anti epileptic drug treatment.Mothers having seizure can safely breast feed their babies while taking anti-epileptic drugs, if any problem arises, they should consult their treating doctor.Some anti-epileptic drug have a side effect of causing gingivitis in mouth, so you should keep the mouth clean and tidy.2) Instruction regarding Employment and Driving.If you are well and completely controlled without any disabilities from seizure, then you can work in any job which is not disturbing.The jobs not recommended for a persons with seizure are defence services, working with unguarded machinery, fire services, Railway engine driver.Persons whose fits are not controlled should not drive any vehicle.Persons with seizure should break out helmet and seat belt while change of location.Persons with seizure should wear Medical alert Tag which should contain your name, age, diagnosis, address and auditory sensation number of nearest relative.3) Instruction regarding coupling and Pregnancy.Persons with seizure can marry, if seizure is in good control.The spouse of the person should be aware of the situation. unworthy controlled seizure tolerants cant marry, as it will cause problems.The anti-epileptic drugs must be continued in the same dosage during entire pregnancy.Treatment with one drug is preferred during pregnancy.Antenatal Mothers on seizure treatment should attend regular antenatal visits.4) Instruction regarding recreational activitiesIf you are in good seizure contr ol, you can participate in non strenuous activities. block athletic activities like fast running jumping etc.Swimming can do under supervision.Remember to carry sufficient medicine while travelling and take them at scheduled time.Flying in aeroplane is also safe ,but you should inform to the staffs in advance.While watching T.V and working in computerSit or stand as remote from screen as possible.Do not watch T.V if you are tired or need sleep. abide by T.V in a well lighted room.Avoid excessive play and work in computer, it will weakened the brain function.If you continues to have any discomfort (tingling, numbness, stiffness etc..) see a doctor immediately.Instruction regarding relaxation techniques to reduce stressRelaxation allows the body to heal from within.Sit in a at rest positionPlace your hands in a resting state on your lapClose your eyes. recognise a deep breath.Relieve the breath slowly.Do this for 10 to 30 mintues in a day.Instruction regarding dietary patternDrink plenty of water.Flesh foods like chicken and mutton are good.Rice, Nuts, Eggs, can also eat.Diet should not ignored in any circumstances.SECTION 2Promotion of safety measures on management of seizure among primary care givers of longanimouss with seizure.The main areas this section deals withCare of patients during seizure.Care of patient after seizure.Prevention of seizure related injury.Instruction regarding care of patients during seizureDont try to restrain the personRemove objects that could cause injury.Loosen tight clothing.Turn the head or whole body to the side to drain saliva from mouth.Nothing to be inserted between the mouth during seizure.Do not attempt to give CPR during seizure.If the person turns blue or stop breathing CPR can be performed after seizure.If the seizure continues for more than 5 minutes or if not responding, seek medical examination help. hold on near to the patient and speak kindly.Instruction regarding care of patient after seizureTreat if there i s any injury.Record all details likeWhen seizure startedHow long it lasted.What body parts were affectedAny specific symptoms like confusion, head ache, fever, vomiting.How the person behave before and after the seizure.Allow the patient for a sound sleep.Do not offer anything (food or water) until the patient is fully alert and awake.Do not disturb while the patient is sleeping.After waking, check whether the patient is oriented or not.When to seek hand brake helpWhen the patient have,Inability to walk or standFeverGuidelines for primary care givers of a seizure patientBe conscious about the signs symptoms of aural stage of seizurePlace the patient on a flat surface during seizureProvide a clam environmentStay near the patientRemove the all the materials which harm the patientNever try to move the patient during seizureIf the patient is having high fever take necessary action immediatelyA medical alert card should always with the patient when he goes out which should have the fol lowing information name, address, phone number, diagnosisCheck whether patient get adequate sleepCheck whether patient takes drugs regularlyAvoid the social stigmaStressful events with seizure patients has to do it in a careful manner.Prepare the patient psychologically both for success and failure in any attempt.SummaryThis chapter deals with the promotion of safety measures on management of seizure. This chapter includes 2 sections. Section -I deals with the safety measures for patients with seizure and section II deals with the safety measures for the primary care giver to undertaken during a seizure.Exercise IIITry to answer the following questionsRestrain the patient during seizureTrue b) paradoxicalPut any hard object in to the mouth during seizure to quash tongue biting.True b) FalseRelaxation techniques can reduce stressTrue b) FalseIf the patient loss breathing during seizure, start CPRTrue b) FalseKeep the patient in irresistible position during seizure.True b) FalseKE Y ANSWERSExercise No -1NeuronsChemical messengerElectrical chargesSeizuresBrainExercise No-2Aural stageSeizureStatus EpilepticusPartial seizureStrokeExercise No-3FalseFalseTrueFalseFalseCONCLUSIONFrom this booklet (SIM),it is clearly understood that on the whole, the future of persons with seizure is definitely bright and those affected can certainly look forward to a much better quality of life. In order to attain this, you should promote the safety measure that you have read and follow it with out fail.