Friday, May 17, 2019
Homo sapiensÃ¢â¬â¢ Origin is Not Africa: Looking into Evidences of ManÃ¢â¬â¢s True Origin
There is a common nonion that piece of musics birthplace is Africa. Dr. Chuchward, a kat oncen anthropologist, substantiate earlier findings of anthropologists (through examination of dodo remains) found out that the oldest ancestors of the compassionate race race inventoryated in Africa. One of the anthropologists who ventured into Africa to study human fossil is Dr. Leakey (Origin of Man Human Beginnings 1). In 1963, Leakey found human fossils dating back to 1. 2 million old age ago in eastern Africa (Rift Valley Region), the oldest known fossils of hominids (Origin of Man Human Beginnings 1).The theory was emphasized in numerous docu mentaries, commonly sponsored by the National Geographic or the American Anthropological Society. Much of the content of these documentaries pointed mans strain in the Rift Valley region in East Africa. On January 11, 1988, the Newsweek Magazine published an condition entitled The Search for Adam and Eve. DNA tracing proved that the c rease of man can be found to a single woman who lived in Sub-Saharan Africa between 80 000 and 200 000 years ago (Origin of Man Human Beginnings 1).Her descendants migrated first to the Arabian Peninsula, then to India and Europe and to the rest of the creation. This was confirmed by another scientist, Dr. Eric Higgs of Cambridge University. By studying the ancient migration of men, he theorized that the first man of Europe was from exchange and east Africa. It was about 200 00 years ago (prior to the Ice Age). Professor Chester Chard of the University of Wisconsin noted was adequate to prove that in that location existed in the remote past migration routes. Much of the routes store is in Africa. Dr.Leakey once verbalise that it is inconceivable that man, the most curious and mobile of all animals, would not have come to America when the elephants, the tapirs and the deer came from Asia man spread out from Africa to Asia to Europe (Origin of Man Human Beginnings 1). This vie w of mans origin had been confirmed and reconfirmed by the succeeding generation of anthropologists. For example, in 19888, Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews pointed out that humanity sapiens had evolved from a homo erectus host some 200 000 years ago (Bakalar1). This adult male erectus group later became out(p) and replaced by their descendants, the homophile sapiens.Homo sapiens later migrated to Asia, Europe, and to the rest of the world. A known geologist, John Martyn was able to detect human fossils in the Great Rift Valley (in Kenya). Using a new method of dating fossils, he found out that the human skulls were 2. 4 million years old. Recently, some scientists be thought-provoking the assumption that mans origin is Africa. Professor Robin Dennell of the University of Sheffield in England and Wil Roebroeks of Leiden University in the Netherlands believed that archaean human fossils discovered over the past ten years indicate that humanlike or subhuman species had its origin in Asia (Bakalar 1).They pointed to two significant finds of the century. A 1. 75 million year old small brained human fossils was found in Dmanisi, Georgia indicating that it was the descendant of Homo erectus living in the Asian continent in the past 2 million years. Another 18 000 year old hobbit fossils was found in the island of Flores in Ind binglesia (Bakalar 1). The two scientists theorized that because of the relatively small brains of the new-made finds, large-scale migration is not manageable. Professor Dennell give tongue to, What seems reasonably clear now is that the earliest hominins in Asia did not need large brains or bodies (prerequisite for migration).The two argued that there were no fossil or archeological proofs to support the claim that early humans moved from southern Africa to the Nile Valley in thee early Pleistocene period about 1. 8 million years ago to 11 ergocalciferol years ago (Bakalar 1). They also argued that though the earliest eviden ce of a human ancestor in Asia appeared about 1. 8 million years ago (based from a human cranium found in Mojokerto, Indonesia), it cannot be said that no older specimens can be found in Asia.To support this claim, Stringer said Evidence of humans in the Caucasus region of Asia, China, and Java more than 1.6 million years ago implies either a very rapid spread from Africa after 1. 8 million years ago, or that such populations were set up outside Africa earlier than present evidence suggests (Bakalar 2). He added that rapid migration out of Africa was not possible owe to the fact that early climate prevented homo species from migrating out of Africa. The two said that most interpretations of early and recent findings pointed that the earliest human tools found in the Asian continent are usually attributed to Homo erectus (species usually thought of having its origin from Africa).H. ergaster is an African species assumed by many scientists as both the progenitor of Homo erectus and t he only primate capable of migrating out of Africa (Bakalar 2). The body form of H. ergaster is the final proof that it is the remote ancestors of the Homo sapiens. Its body has humanlike proportions its brain is capable of learning 9e. g. how to hunt game animals). There is though one flaw in this argument. Australopithecines (which is an older form of humanlike primates had virtually colonized the African region by 3. 5 million years ago.Similar grasslands extended crosswise Asia at the time, suggesting that Australopithecines could have survived quite well in the region, the authors said. Added to that, fossil evidence for H. ergaster in the early Pleistocene period is generally unknown. This suggests that H. ergaster was not able to migrate out of Africa by the time Asia was teeming with early men (Bakalar 2). This interpretation was support by the discovery of human fossils in Flores, Indonesia. The discovered fossils were named as H. floresiensis (Asian origin). Two facts wer e really staggering for many scientists.The age of the fossils was relatively the same with that of the fossils found in Africa. And, H. floresiensis was capable of making primitive tools tools which were used in hunting (Bakalar 2). The implication of the first fact is distribution of early human populations across both the African and Asian continents was generally uniform (by 2. 6 million years ago). The two authors hypothesized that it is possible for either a multiple point origin (found in different parts of the world) or a single-point Asian origin of the human species.The two authors noted The unresolved status of intriguing Flores finds attributed to H.floresiensis leaves open the possibility that this species is the end go forth and last survivor of an ancient migration of very primitive humans, or even prehumans that formerly existed more wide across Asia (Bakalar 2). The implication of the second fact is stone tools used by early men across Asia did not point to an Afri can origin nor did represent an advanced state of development. Added to that, the two authors concluded that the Dmanisi Georgia hominins are an extremely primitive version of H. erectus that is the ancestor of the H.erectus populations in both Java and those in East Asia (Bakalar 2).Thus, there is a high probability that the origin of early men rests on the continent of Asia. The theory of Multiregional ontogenesis was examined in the article of Wolpoff and Caspari entitled No, Homo Sapiens Did Not Originate in Africa (in the book victorious Sides, World History, V. 1). The theory assumed that there are multiple points of mans evolution in the remote past. Specifically, this theory adhered to the concept of polytypism. Polytypism is the existence of observable average differences between populations.Since different populations of early men differed significantly on certain measurements, multiregionalists argued that patterns of migration varied across potential routes. Some popul ations would become isolated, and hence, might try out significant differences over the course of time. Some populations might become almost identical in terms of physiological characteristics because of cultural or biological proximity. Thus, multiregionalists argued that the single-point origin of the human species cannot explain the differences found across early human populations.The two suggested that local evolutionary events took place across the world after the appearance of Homo sapiens. According to the two, populations of Homo evolved from a single species. Thus, the propensity of speciation between Pleistocene human populations was not possible (speciation is the splitting of one species into two) (Mitchell and Mitchell, 12-13). This hypothesis became a point of challenge to the prevailing Out of Africa Model which states that Homo sapiens evolved recently as a new species in Africa, and then dispersed throughout the world (by routes).The Out of Africa Model also claim ed that Homo sapiens were responsible for replacing the existing human populations of those regions without biologically mixing with them. The two pointed out that evidences of an earlier revolution took place in a small group isolated from australopithecine species. Thus, Homo sapiens remained significantly different from australopithecines in both anatomy and physiology (Mitchell and Mitchell, 13-15).