Tuesday, August 13, 2019

Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk Research Paper

Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk - Research Paper Example They include sensory perception, activity, skin moisture, mobility, nutritional intake, friction and shear. Each subscale measures the capability of the patient that cause high intensity and duration of pressure, or low tissue tolerance (Braden, 2009). Low Braden score shows that the patient has a low level of functioning; hence, high level of risk of developing a pressure ulcer. Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk The Braden Scale for Predicting Pressure Ulcer Risk was developed by Nancy Bergstrom and Barbara Braden, in 1987, and it has been in use since then (Braden, 2009). The aim of this tool is to help health professionals such as nurses and other health care givers to assess a patient’s risk of developing pressure ulcers. Braden scale measures the functional capabilities of the patient that cause lower tissue tolerance for pressure or high intensity and duration of pressure (Statts and Gunningberg, 2007). It is used with patients of all ages, as well as setti ngs, and it is considered more accurate than other scales like the Waterlow and the Norton scales or clinical judgment are. The Braden scale consists of up to six subscales scored from 1-4. They include sensory perception, activity, mobility, skin moisture, nutritional intake, friction and shear. ... Pressure ulcers are a significant problem in older adults who are hospitalized. For instance, in Canada, America and parts of Europe, prevalence for pressure ulcers ranges from 14% to 25% and frequency from 7% to 9% (Braden, 2009). In addition, about 280,000 hospital stays were noted to have adult patients with pressure ulcers, in 1993, and this number increased to 455,000, in 2003, which is 63% increase. According to Statts and Gunningberg (2007), three processes contribute to the development of pressure ulcers. The main one is the pressure that is put on tissues by the weight of the body, as the tissues are squeezed between bones and a hard surface. The friction created when the body slides over sheets, and upholstery among others, also irritates the skin leading to pressure ulcers due to factors such as too much moisture, poor blood circulation to the tissues, and poor skin quality. The pressure ulcers result when the pressure cuts off the blood supply, and blood is not supplied t o tissues, which eventually die and slough off (Statts and Gunningberg, 2007). As stated by Braden (2009), the main risk factors for pressure ulcers are immobility i.e. not being able to move. This includes bed or chair confinement where a person must sit in a wheelchair or stay in bed all day a result of illness such as stroke, cancer, surgery, and heart failure among others. Thus, lack of movement due to confinement increases the risk of developing pressure ulcers. Inability to move such as changing positions without the help of a caregiver increases the risk too. For instance, a person in a coma, or a paralyzed person is at a higher risk of getting pressure

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